Konica Minolta



Bier Block


Figure 1: Intravenous regional anesthesia: Injection of local anesthetic and placement of the tourniquet. Essentials Indications: short operative procedures for the extremities; pain therapy (e.g., treatment of recurrent complexpain    syndrome); treatment of hyperhidrosis Local anesthetic: 12-15 mL of 2% lidocaine…

Spinal Anesthesia continued

Landmark Based

Pharmacodynamics Of Spinal Anesthesia The pharmacodynamics of spinal injection of local anesthesia are wide-ranging. The next section reviews the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal consequences of spinal anesthesia. This portion of the chapter focuses on the hepatic and renal effects of…

Spinal Anesthesia

Landmark Based

Introduction with General Considerations & Brief History Carl Koller, an ophthalmologist from Vienna, first described the use of topical cocaine for analgesia of the eye in 1884.[1] William Halsted and Richard Hall, surgeons at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City,…

Oral and Maxillofacial Regional Anesthesia

Head and Neck Blocks

Authors: Benaifer D. Dubash, DMD; Adam T. Hershkin, DMD; Paul J. Seider, DMD; Gregory M. Casey, DMD Affiliation: St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral surgical and dental procedures are routinely performed in an outpatient setting….

Ultrasound Guided Popliteal Sciatic Block

Lower Extremity

Figure 1: Cross-sectional anatomy of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa. Shown are common peroneal nerve (CPN), tibial nerve (TN), popliteal artery (PA), popliteal vein (PV), femur, biceps femoris (BFM), semimembranosus (SmM) and semitendinosus (StM) muscles. Essentials Indications: foot…

Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block

Upper Extermity

Figure 1: Needle insertion for interscalene brachial plexus block. The needle is inserted between palpating fingers that are positioned in the scalene groove (between anterior and middle scalene muscles). 1 = sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. 2 = clavicular…